WARNING: Stack unwind information not available. Following frames may be wrong.

I’m sure if you have ever used the WinDbg family of debuggers sometime, you must have seen the above message. What does it really mean? How does it affect you?

Quick Background on stack operation

In x86, the way the stack is built up, the entry point of the function (a.k.a. prolog) generated by the compiler contains some key instructions including one which saves the previous value of the EBP register for that thread on the stack. The next instruction sets the EBP register to point to the current stack pointer (ESP).

What am I talking about? If you don’t know what EBP and ESP are, I recommend you take a quick look at the links in the reference section at the end.

Frame Pointer Omission

So in some cases the compiler may choose to omit the setting of the EBP register and may instead directly use ESP to reference locals and parameters. In such cases the EBP register (a.k.a. ‘frame pointer’) is deemed as ‘omitted’ and the generated code is called FPO (Frame Pointer Omission) code.

In such cases the debugger will typically complain that it cannot unwind the stack based on the EBP (unless it has symbol files which match the module whose function has FPO enabled). Under those cases it will emit the warning which is the title of this post.


  • For builds which have /Oy enabled, it is necessary to have symbol files to successfully reconstruct the stack.
  • In the real world the most common reason to encounter the above message is faulty symbol paths. Check your symbol path.
  • In cases where you can tolerate the overhead of setting up the frame pointer, leave FPO off (/Oy-). See the last reference in my post for something which Windows team has supposedly done regarding this.


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